A global requirement for the HIR complex in the assembly of chromatin.

Due to its extensive length, DNA is packaged into a protective chromatin structure known as the nucleosome. In order to carry out various cellular functions, nucleosomes must be disassembled, allowing access to the underlying DNA, and subsequently reassembled on completion of these processes. The assembly and disassembly of nucleosomes is dependent on the function of histone modifiers, chromatin remodelers and histone chaperones.
In this review, we discuss the roles of an evolutionarily conserved histone chaperone known as the HIR/HIRA complex. In S. cerevisiae, the HIR complex is made up of the proteins Hir1, Hir2, Hir3 and Hpc2, which collectively act in transcriptional regulation, elongation, gene silencing, cellular senescence and even aging. This review presents an overview of the role of the HIR complex, in yeast as well as other organisms, in each of these processes, in order to give a better understanding of how nucleosome assembly is imperative for cellular homeostasis and genomic integrity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Histone chaperones and Chromatin assembly.

Nucleosome assembly factors CAF-1 and HIR modulate epigenetic switching frequencies in an H3K56 acetylation-associated manner in Candida albicans.

CAF-1 and HIR are highly conserved histone chaperone protein complexes that function in the assembly of nucleosomes onto chromatin. CAF-1 is characterized as having replication-coupled nucleosome activity, whereas the HIR complex can assemble nucleosomes independent of replication. Histone H3K56 acetylation, controlled by the acetyltransferase Rtt109 and deacetylase Hst3, also plays a significant role in nucleosome assembly. In this study, we generated a set of deletion mutants to genetically characterize pathway-specific and overlapping functions of CAF-1 and HIR in C. albicans. Their roles in epigenetic maintenance of cell type were examined by using the white-opaque switching system in C. albicans.
 A global requirement for the HIR complex in the assembly of chromatin.
We show that CAF-1 and HIR play conserved roles in UV radiation recovery, repression of histone gene expression, correct chromosome segregation, and stress responses. Unique to C. albicans, the cac2Δ/Δ mutant shows increased sensitivity to the Hst3 inhibitor nicotinamide, while the rtt109Δ/Δ cac2Δ/Δ and hir1Δ/Δ cac2Δ/Δ mutants are resistant to nicotinamide.
CAF-1 plays a major role in maintaining cell types, as the cac2Δ/Δ mutant exhibited increased switching frequencies in both directions and switched at a high frequency to opaque in response to nicotinamide. Like the rtt109Δ/Δ mutant, the hir1Δ/Δ cac2Δ/Δ double mutant is defective in maintaining the opaque cell fate and blocks nicotinamide-induced opaque formation, and the defects are suppressed by ectopic expression of the master white-opaque regulator Wor1. Our data suggest an overlapping function of CAF-1 and HIR in epigenetic regulation of cell fate determination in an H3K56 acetylation-associated manner.

Visible infrared spin-scan radiometer atmospheric sounder radiometric calibration: an inflight evaluation from intercomparisons with HIRS and radiosonde measurements.

The Visible IR spin-scan radiometer Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) is the first sounding instrument placed in geostationary orbit. The calibration procedure for determining VAS radiances requires modeling the contributions of the telescope foreoptics components to the background radiation. A simple relation between target radiance and detector output voltage is derived.
The calibration procedure is successfully tested by comparisons with HIRS and radiosonde data. After removing a negative offset of up to 3 degrees C in three of the upper atmospheric CO(2) bands of VAS, the capability to produce accurate soundings (within 2 degrees C of radiosonde) was demonstrated.

The mitotic Clb cyclins are required to alleviate HIR-mediated repression of the yeast histone genes at the G1/S transition.

The histone genes are an important group of cell cycle regulated genes whose transcription is activated during the G1/S transition and repressed in early G1, late S, and G2/M. The HIR complex, comprised of Hir1, Hir2, Hir3 and Hpc2, regulates three of the four histone gene loci. While relief of repression at the G1/S boundary involves the HIR complex, as well as other cofactors, the mechanism by which this derepression occurs remains unknown. To better understand how transcriptional repression contributes to periodic expression in the cell cycle, we sought to identify the cell cycle signals required to alleviate HIR-mediated repression of the histone genes.

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By measuring histone gene transcription in strains with various combinations of clb mutations, we found that the mitotic Clb1/Clb2 cyclins are required to alleviate Hir-mediated repression during the G1/S transition and that Clb2 physically interacts with the HIR complex. While the HIR complex regulates histone gene transcription in combination with two other histone H3/H4 chaperones, Asf1 and Rtt106, our data demonstrate that the mitotic Clb cyclins are necessary to specifically alleviate the repressive action of the HIR complex itself in order to allow proper expression of the histone genes in late G1/early S phase.

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